These tips are from well known Master rated chess coach Dan Heisman.
1. The most important chess guideline: SAFETY: Keep all your pieces safe! (And consider taking opponent’s pieces that are not safe). For piece values, Bishops and Knights as worth about 3¼ pawns, Rooks 5, a Queen about 9.5.Having two Bishops when your opponent does not is called “the Bishop Pair” and is worth about an extra ½ pawn. Winning a Rook for a Bishop or Knight is called winning The Exchange and is worth almost half a piece (Bishop or Knight).
2. The 2nd most important chess guideline: ACTIVITY: Make sure all your pieces are doing something all the time! – So, for example, move every piece once before you move any piece twice in the opening (as a goal). Often the best strategy in a position with no tactics is to find a piece that is doing little and find a way for it to do more!
3. TAKE YOUR TIME – if world championship players always take several minutes to find a good move, what makes you think that you can find a better one faster? Look at it this way: NOTHING is preventing weaker players from playing like stronger players and taking your time to look at as many possibilities as you can. A good goal is to pace yourself to use almost all of your time every game. When you are thinking, say to yourself, “If I do X, what are all the moves he is likely to do in return, and can I meet every one of those threats next move? ”If not, then you have to find yourself another move, and this takes time! Tip: Don't start a game where you are not intending to use all your time. If you want to play faster, then play a faster time control.
5. The way to keep your pieces safe and to win your opponent’s pieces is through tactics. Tactics are the most important part of a chess game – every good player knows basic tactics. The most basic tactic is counting – that is, making sure each piece is adequately guarded enough times by other pieces. Studying the other tactics: Pins, forks, checkmates, skewers, removal of the guard, queening combinations, double threats, discovered checks, etc. can be done first through a book like Bain’s Chess Tactics for Students and then others. If you like doing the puzzles in those books, you will probably do all of them and become a good player! By the way, the player who gets the most pieces out first usually finds himself on the good side of the tactics! Also, AVOID The Seeds of Tactical Destruction: loose (unguarded) pieces, weak back rank, pinned pieces, overworked pieces, inadequately guarded pieces, etc.
6. When considering which move to make, consider first your checks, captures, and threats. Similarly, when seeing what your opponent can do to you, look for his checks, captures, and threats first. Your opponent is just as important as you are. Pay just as much attention to what he is doing as to what you are doing. After your opponent makes a move, ask yourself “Why did he do that?” and “What can he do to me now that he couldn’t do to me before?” And check to see if that piece or any other opponent’s piece is not safe.
7. When you are winning, think defense first!! That does not mean play passively, but it does mean that trading pieces is probably good; make sure your King is safe; don’t create unnecessary complications, keep pieces on guarded squares, and put yourself in your opponent’s shoes: what would you do if you were him?
·Castle your King into safety (the most important move in most openings)
9. Other opening guidelines: Move Knights before Bishops, e.g. move out the Knight on the side where you want to castle, then the Bishop, then castle, then move your other Knight, your other Bishop, move the Queen up a little and then move both Rooks into play. Don’t start an attack until ALL your pieces are ready. Don’t move up your Queen too far where your opponent’s Knights and Bishops can attack it and win tempos. The player who makes the best (and the fastest) use of his Rooks usually wins the opening!